The Influence of Common Elements on Copper
It’s inevitable that trace elements enter into copper. Their different characteristics decide the different solid solubility, so the influences on the copper’s performance differ in thousands of ways.
Hydrogen has high solubility in liquid copper. When liquid copper solidify, pores will form, resulting in brittleness and peeling of copperware. Although hydrogen has little influence on the performance of copper, it is harmful to copper and copper alloy. Oxygen-bearing copper will have crack when in the hydrogen annealing process, resulting by vapor.
Oxygen is inevitable as well as important in the productive process of copper. Trace oxygen has little impact on the electric conductivity and mechanical property of copper. Why industrial copper has high electric conductivity? The reason is that as a detergent, oxygen can clear away many detrimental impurities in copper, especially arsenic, antimony, bismuth, etc.
Since electric vacuum components should be sealed in hydrogen, the oxygen in copper will bring about hydrogen disease, so electric vacuum copper should be oxygen-free copper.
Arsenic can strongly decrease the electric and heat conductivity of copper. It is usually added in cooper as alterant, especially precious for brass condenser alloy. It can prevent brass dezincification and further brass condenser leakage. And the service life of brass condenser can be extended to 15-20 years after adding in arsenic.
Boron is usually used as desoxidant. By adding 0.01-0.04% boron in arsenic brass condenser, brass dezincification can be better prevented. Oxide of boron is good covering agent for copper alloy smelting. Adding boron in the welding material of copper can protect welded metal from oxidation.
The phosphorus dissolved in copper can bring down its electric conductivity prominently. Phosphorus is the most effective desoxidant with the lowest cost. Trace phosphorus can raise the mobility of melt, improve the welding property and corrosion resisting property of copper and alloy, and enhance the softening resistance degree. It is precious element that added in copper and alloy.
Lead has no obvious significance for electric and heat conductivity of copper and alloy, but it can improve machinability. Its material point is solid phase, which is good for bearing material, so leaded copper and alloy is precious free-cutting and bearing material. And its low cost makes it more popular in market. The smaller of the material point and the more uniform its distribution, the better the leaded brass’s performance. Leaded copper and alloy can both be cast and pressure processing. What’s more, leaded copper alloy is quite adaptive for raw material, secondary copper can be used directly for producing leaded copper alloy.
Zinc, stannum, aluminium, nickel
They can obviously improve the mechanical property and corrosion resisting property of copper, but they all decrease the copper’s electric and heat conductivity. While comparing with other metal materials, they are still good electric and heat conduction material. They can form precious alloy with copper, i.e. brass, bronze and cupronickel alloy, which have excellent combination property.
Other elements that have important role in copper include: antimony, bismuth, sulphur, tellurium, selenium, ferrum, zirconium, chrome, silicon, silver, beryllium, cadmium, tungsten, molybdenum, gold, palladium, platinum, rhodium magnesium, lithium, calcium, manganese, cerium, etc. We are professional copper recycling machine manufacturer and welcome to contact us any time for guide on copper wire granulator and copper stripping machine.